2011 japan earthquake。 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, March 2011

Magnitude 7.3 earthquake strikes near site of Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan

2 event centred approximately 25 miles 40 km away from the epicentre of the main quake. Other major earthquakes with tsunamis struck the region and. Researchers soon after the full extent of the disaster was known launched a project to gather all digital material relating to the disaster into an online searchable archive to form the basis of future research into the events during and after the disaster. Stone monuments at the UNESCO : were toppled. The number of aftershocks was associated with decreased health across Japan. Regional planning and coordinated activity are essential in such a circumstance. Gross said that, in theory, anything that redistributes Earth's mass will change Earth's rotation. Because of the unquestioning nature of most Japanese media to hold to the "party line", many Japanese mid-level officials and experts spoke to foreign media to get their opinions and observations publicized. As of April 2012, wreckage from the tsunami spread around the world, including a ball which was found in Alaska's and a Japanese motorcycle found in British Columbia, Canada. 29 metres 11 in Scientists say that the subsidence is permanent. 8 ;background-image:-webkit-linear-gradient top,transparent,rgba 0,0,0,. Further information: The , , and , consisting of a total eleven reactors, were following the earthquake. Just over an hour after the earthquake at 15:55 JST, a tsunami was observed flooding , which is located near the coast of , with waves sweeping away cars and planes and flooding various buildings as they traveled inland. However, potassium iodide does not protect against other toxic effects of radiation. The March 11, 2011, earthquake was the strongest to strike the region since the beginning of record keeping in the late 19th century, and it is considered one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded. Radioactive iodine was detected in the tap water in Fukushima, Tochigi, Gunma, Tokyo, Chiba, Saitama, and Niigata, and radioactive caesium in the tap water in Fukushima, Tochigi and Gunma. The earthquake also generated infrasound waves detected by perturbations in the orbit of the satellite, which thus became the first seismograph in orbit. In April 2015, authorities off the coast of discovered debris that is thought to be from a boat destroyed during the tsunami. Because tsunami walls had been overtopped, the committee also suggested, besides building taller tsunami walls, also teaching citizens how to evacuate if a large-scale tsunami should strike. In a subduction zone, one plate slides beneath another into the mantle, the hotter layer beneath the crust. Too many plants, including and especially Indian Point just north of New York City, are older-generation facilities located in places vulnerable to earthquakes and other natural disasters. He is also the Director of the , Director of the , and a member of the This comprehensive training is conducted by , Professor Emeritus of Radiation Biophysics, Columbia University. Other nationwide Japanese and international TV networks also broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. timeline-element:not :last-child p,. RELATED REPORTS AND MEDIA Over one-third of the US population lives or works within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant. The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on 21 March 2011. Land subsidence and soil liquefaction at in , near The reported land based on the height of in the area measured by as compared to their previous values from 14 April 2011. More than 120,000 buildings were destroyed, 278,000 were half-destroyed and 726,000 were partially destroyed, the agency said. Some houses along the coast in were destroyed. 5 m 4 ft 11 in and more than 300 homes damaged. However, since the position of the figure axis can be measured to an accuracy of about 5 centimeters 2 inches , the estimated 17-centimeter shift in the figure axis from the Japan quake may actually be large enough to observe if scientists can adequately remove the larger effects of the atmosphere and ocean from the Earth rotation measurements. said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan. But don't worry-you won't notice the difference. About 90 seconds after an earthquake, an additional report on the possibility of a tsunami will also be included in observation reports, in order to warn people before the JMA magnitude can be calculated. The electrical power and backup generators were overwhelmed by the tsunami, and the plant lost its cooling capabilities. 0 or greater and two of magnitude 7. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. The of this earthquake extended from offshore to offshore. PGA is generally used in the evaluation of building codes, using the I-X PGA can be correlated to potential damage shown in legend and perceived shaking. Kepco could not share electricity, because its system operated at 60 hertz, whereas TEPCO and TEP operate their systems at 50 hertz; the disparity is due to early industrial and infrastructure development in the 1880s that left Japan without a unified national. Choose a language from the menu above to view a computer-translated version of this page. Less than three weeks ago the world witnessed yet another major disaster that in a matter of minutes destroyed communities, displaced hundreds of thousand of people and claimed thousands of lives. Accessible across all of today's devices: phones, tablets, and desktops. Most of these deaths occurred during the first six months after the earthquake and the number dropped thereafter, but as time has passed, the number has continued to increase. The areas flooded in 2011 closely matched those of a tsunami that hit Sendai in 869. Scientific and research response Seismologists anticipated a very large quake would strike in the same place as the — in the , southwest of Tokyo. 4 m 8 ft east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm 4 in and 25 cm 10 in , increased earth's rotational speed by 1. 8 microseconds a microsecond is one millionth of a second. The surge in was large enough to damage more than 200 houses, with waves of up to 3 m 9. Peak electricity consumption recorded by TEPCO during the period was 49. The city-owned plant for importing in Sendai was severely damaged, and supplies were halted for at least a month. stated this may have been due to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents but was not from the Onagawa plant itself. Japan's scientists had forecast a smaller earthquake would strike the northern region of Honshu, the country's main island. Nuclear meltdown The tsunami caused a cooling system failure at the , which resulted in a level-7 nuclear meltdown and release of radioactive materials. More frequent overlap of nuclear power plants and seismic risk is seen in the Southeast as the seismic hazard appears minimal, though not insignificant. Many sections of serving northern Japan were damaged. It will take decades to safely shut down the plant. JMA also reported offshore tsunami height recorded by from wave-height meter buoys as follows:• By 21 March 2011, this number fell to 1. Some of the first research to come from the archive was a 2014 paper from the Digital Methods Initiative in Amsterdam about patterns of usage around the time of the disaster. The said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km 310 mi and a width of 200 km 120 mi. are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States. When those plates scrape against each other and cause an earthquake, the results can be deadly and devastating. Seismic stations in , , and measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in Tokyo. 2s ease-in-out;-o-transition:all. Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable. The most severe effects of the tsunami were felt along a 670-kilometre-long 420 mi stretch of coastline from , in the north to , in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the earthquake. It was preceded by several foreshocks, including a magnitude-7. Republished from a March, 2011 press release by Alan Buris of. article-wrapper contrib-block,. There were also cases where large differences between estimated intensities by the Earthquake Early Warning system and the actual intensities occurred in the aftershocks and triggered earthquakes. But assuring timely distribution and administration of potassium iodide to children about to be exposed or just exposed to radioactive iodine, I-131, is an essential step. The country's stringent seismic building codes and early warning system prevented many deaths from the earthquake, by stopping high-speed trains and factory assembly lines. He is also a Professor of Nursing and Public Health, Columbia University. A surge of displaced and fearful people will likely move in to surrounding areas seeking food, shelter, and help. He has written five books and has published over 350 papers in the peer review scientific literature. 0 M w or greater, and 9 over 7. in , Tokyo The Earth's shifted by estimates of between 10 cm 4 in and 25 cm 10 in. 1, which killed more than 230,000 people. It was not as bad as the , but worse than the. In the fall of 2016 Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience NIED; Japanese abbreviation, Bosai Kaken; full name Bousai Kagaku Gijutsu Kenkyusho launched the online interactive "Disaster Chronology Map for Japan, 416—2013" map labels in Japanese to display in visual form the location, disaster time, and date across the islands. Four trains on coastal lines were reported as being out of contact with operators; one, a four-car train on the , was found to have derailed, and its occupants were rescued shortly after 8 am the next morning. This brought the total number of problematic reactors to six. 5 metres 31 ft• Most of the foreshocks are interplate earthquakes with thrust-type focal mechanisms. Nearly two years later, on December 7, 2012, a magnitude-7. data from the quake have been used to create a model for compared to seismic models, as gravity fields travel faster than seismic waves. Hundreds of aftershocks, dozens of magnitude 6. key-facts-element:last-of-type,. 1 Sumatran earthquake revealed it should have shortened the length of day by 6. The waves overtopped and destroyed protective tsunami seawalls at several locations. The north eastern ports of Hachinohe, Sendai, Ishinomaki and Onahama were destroyed, while the which serves the hydrocarbon industry and Japan's ninth-largest container port at were also affected, though less severely. These are expected changes for an earthquake of this magnitude. Entire towns were destroyed in tsunami-hit areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in ; one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town by 14 March 2011. Less than an hour after the earthquake, the first of many tsunami waves hit Japan's coastline. A sign informing beachgoers about proper tsunami debris disposal procedures at , , US Along the Pacific Coast of and South America, tsunami surges were reported, but in most places caused little or no damage. However, other estimates gave a final toll of at least 20,000. And there are indeed lessons to be learned with respect to this public health threat from the aftermath of the horrendous accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in 1986. The earthquake and tsunami also caused extensive and severe structural damage in north-eastern Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, and a dam collapse. "People shouldn't worry about them. As late as July 2013 slightly elevated levels of radioactivity were found in beef on sale at Tokyo markets. Geophysical effects Portions of northeastern Japan shifted by as much as 2. Nearby , built mostly on reclaimed land, was not damaged. As the nuclear crisis entered a second month, experts said that Fukushima Daiichi, while not the worst nuclear accident ever, was the most complicated. 6 metres 2 ft 0 in , allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land. This led to near-paralysis within the capital, with long lines at train stations and many people unable to come to work or get home. The Japanese government continued to ask the public to conserve electricity until 2016, when it is predicted that the supply will be sufficient to meet demand, thanks to the deepening of the mindset to conserve electricity among corporate and general public, addition of new electricity providers due to the policy, increased output from renewable energy as well as fossil fuel power stations, as well as sharing of electricity between different electricity companies. Also, at the slope of a nearby mountain from 400 metres 1,300 ft away at Aneyoshi fishery port 姉吉漁港 of Omoe peninsula 重茂半島 in , found estimated tsunami run up height of 38. Additional resources• In the years following the accident, however, numerous leaks at the facility occurred at the site where contaminated reactor cooling water was stored. For information on user permissions, please read our. vjs-big-play-button:after,fbs-video. It generated waves 11 to 12 feet 3. 5 ;background-image:-o-linear-gradient rgba 0,56,145,. In some places the water reached several miles inland. Aerial photo of Minato, devastated by both the earthquake and subsequent tsunami The degree and extent of damage caused by the earthquake and resulting tsunami were enormous, with most of the damage being caused by the tsunami. 2 ;box-shadow:0 0 20px rgba 0,0,0,. The surface of the Earth is made up of tectonic plates that lie beneath both the land and oceans of our planet. 15:20 JST — — 3. In the early days after the earthquake some other names were proposed and used. Many radioactive hotspots were found outside the evacuation zone, including Tokyo. 5 M w; the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists. Run up height, port of area — 24 metres 79 ft• The environmental hazards you face depend on where you live. After the 2011 disaster the UNISDR, , held its in Tohoku in March 2015, which produced the document to guide efforts by international development agencies to act before disasters instead of reacting to them after the fact. Many electrical generators ran out of fuel. According to a special committee on disaster prevention designated by the Japanese government, the tsunami protection policy had been intended to deal with only tsunamis that had been scientifically proved to occur repeatedly. The Japan Digital Archive is presented in English and Japanese and is hosted at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Japan Meteorological Agency said the quake — which it initially said had a magnitude of 7. Nuclear plants in California are visibly vulnerable to earthquake risk with one Southern California plant potentially impacting a population over 5 million. As a result of 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. important;-webkit-box-shadow:none! Second, our children are not adequately protected. However, the strong quake had exceeded the measurement limit of all of the within Japan, and thus it was impossible to calculate the moment magnitude based on data from those seismometers. from the original on 15 March 2011. Also, observed data from tidal meters that were located off the coast were not fully reflected in the second warning. 4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1. The earthquake triggered tsunami warnings throughout the Pacific basin. Tsunami flooding on the runway Large parts of and the southern section of including the port area were almost entirely destroyed. Japan specifically requested assistance from teams from Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States. 8 microseconds and shifted Earth's figure axis by about 7 centimeters, or 2. " The timing of the earliest recorded tsunami maximum readings ranged from 15:12 to 15:21, between 26 and 35 minutes after the earthquake had struck. Archived from on 17 March 2011. The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. The line was worst hit, with JR East estimating that 1,100 sections of the line, varying from collapsed station roofs to bent power pylons, will need repairs. Iodine, whether or not radioactive, accumulates in our thyroid glands as part of the normal production of iodine-containing thyroid hormone. 5 ;background-size:1px 1px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:0 1. Their citizens understand the risks and practice the proper responses. 8 litres" of radioactive water also occurred at Onagawa following the aftershock. Such discrepancies in the warning were attributed by the JMA to the system's inability to distinguish between two different earthquakes that happened at around same time, as well as to the reduced number of reporting seismometers due to power outages and connection fails. from the original on 12 March 2011. But there was something different about the chain of events that struck the northeastern coast of Japan. A report by the in 2012 found that the , the closest nuclear plant to the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, had remained largely undamaged. animate-line:not :last-of-type :after,. Estimates of the cost of the damage range well into the tens of billions of ; before-and-after photographs of devastated regions show immense damage to many regions. Psychological first aid can be made available to responders and survivors who may be affected by what they have witnessed and experienced, and more advanced therapeutic measures can be offered to those suffering acute, clinical reactions. Most of these deaths occurred in Fukushima prefecture, where the prefecture government has suggested that they could be due to evacuations caused by the. The report also stated that the quake had caused several major landslides on the seabed in the affected area. 1 metres 13 ft or higher• About 250 miles 400 km of Japan's northern Honshu coastline dropped by 2 feet 0. The quake caused no injuries and little damage. At , the tsunami reached a height of 37. First and foremost is the acute survival window for trapped or injured survivors. , are: First, unrealistic and infeasible evacuation plans. The city of , , suffered extensive damage from the tsunami, with almost the entirety of the lower area of the city being destroyed. This calculation is, in turn, based on the maximum amplitude of the seismic wave. Radioactive caesium, iodine, and strontium were also detected in the soil in some places in Fukushima. Among the factors in the high death toll was the unexpectedly large water surge. Hundreds of aftershocks followed in the days and weeks after the main quake. What do Americans need to know about potassium iodide and radiation exposure? The amplitude of the seismic wave is measured using the , which is similar to. In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake sped up the Whillans Ice Stream, jolting it by about 1. Also, following the earthquake, for the first time in Japanese history, the Emperor addressed the nation in a pre-recorded television broadcast. reports that as many as 100,000 children were uprooted from their homes, some of whom were separated from their families because the earthquake occurred during the school day. Aftershocks follow , which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake. Also largely destroyed was , where the tsunami was three stories high. from the original on 14 March 2011. " Nine days after the earthquake hit, a and were uploaded to allowing listeners to hear the earthquake as it unfolded in time. Kate Uraneck is the Senior Medical Coordinator at the Office of Emergency Preparedness and Response in the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 7;-webkit-box-shadow:0 0 50px rgba 0,0,0,. Remains of Various train services around Japan were also canceled, with suspending all services for the rest of the day. 9 M w at 15:15 JST 6:16 UTC and a 7. The GPS station located nearest the epicenter moved almost 4 m 13 ft. Fukushima became synonymous with when the area was hit by a 9. While they can often be predicted, the loss of life and property take an emotional and economic toll on the community impacted. is that on March 10, one day prior to the record-breaking earthquake, Japan was considered to be the most prepared nation on the planet, especially when it came to earthquakes and tsunamis. Thus, taken before or immediately after absorbing radioactive iodine by inhalation or ingestion, potassium iodide reduces toxic effects on the thyroid. Victims aged 60 or older accounted for 65. People in Japan also received texted alerts of the earthquake and tsunami warnings on their cellphones. Damage caused by the tsunami led to a meltdown in reactor cores at the plant, which caused significant levels of radiation to be released from the facility. However, the games were delayed due to the. As a public health professional and as a pediatrician, I share his concerns. lost three of its four external power lines and temporarily lost cooling function in its spent fuel pools for "20 to 80 minutes". The ship started its journey in Hokkaido. The reservoir at one concrete suffered a small non-serious. Several hours later 9-foot 2. 5 ;background-image:-webkit-linear-gradient rgba 0,56,145,. Using a United States Geological Survey estimate for how the fault responsible for the earthquake slipped, research scientist Richard Gross of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Several nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake, reducing the 's TEPCO total capacity by 21 GW. At this time Japan's Disaster Management Office Naikakufu Bosai Keikaku published a bi-lingual guide in Japanese and English, Disaster Management in Japan, to outline the several varieties of natural disaster and the preparations being made for the eventuality of each. 15:21 JST — — 4 metres 13 ft or higher• In comparison to the , the East Japan earthquake brought serious damage to an extremely wide range. The tsunami caused , primarily the at three reactors in the complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. , a volcano in , erupted three days after the earthquake. 15:21 JST — — 4. A man who is said to have been attempting to photograph the oncoming tsunami at the mouth of the , south of , was swept out to sea. 8 in the source area and the seismic moment, it was estimated that the slip deficit of this earthquake was accumulated over a period of 260—880 years, which is consistent with the recurrence interval of such great earthquakes estimated from the tsunami deposit data. In the decade before the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, a handful of Japanese geologists had begun to recognize that a large earthquake and tsunami had struck the northern Honshu region in 869. offshore of northern — 6 metres 20 ft On 25 March 2011, Port and Airport Research Institute PARI reported tsunami height by visiting the port sites as follows: animation of the tsunami's propagation• Miyagi prefecture suffered the greatest losses, with some 10,800 killed or missing and another 4,100 injured. Nor did they expect such a large tsunami. All railway services were suspended in Tokyo, with an estimated 20,000 people stranded at major stations across the city. The of the European Union addressed the European Parliament on 15 March, explaining that the nuclear disaster was an "apocalypse". A report by the , published in on 2 December 2011, concluded that the seabed in the area between the epicenter and the moved 50 metres 160 ft east-southeast and rose about 7 metres 23 ft as a result of the quake. The system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which minimized the damage. In addition to refining and storage, several power plants were damaged. The quake and tsunami killed 378 elementary, middle-school, and high school students and left 158 others missing. Archived from on 14 March 2011. Television broadcasts of the press conferences of and included simultaneous JSL interpreters standing next to the Japanese flag on the same platform. Note: Does not include all radiation readings from Fukushima Daini site The earthquake and the tragic losses had been served as a significant inspiration for the , in which, in the , managed to create the greatest giant-killing ever in the history where Japan came from nothing to become world champions despite the devastating earthquake and lack of funding for the team; the Nadeshiko itself also unveiled banner to thank global support despite adverse situations at home. More than 5,000 aftershocks hit Japan in the year after the earthquake, the largest a magnitude 7. In a sign of rebirth, Fukushima had been due to host parts of the set to take place in Japan in 2020. In Norway, water in fjords pointing toward Japan sloshed back and forth as seismic waves from the earthquake raced through. This map shows seismic hazard, nuclear power plant sites, number of reactors per site, and the population contained within a 50 mile radius of each nuclear power plant site. In Japan, residents are still recovering from the disaster. 1 M w that killed 230,000 people. Approximately 30 homes or buildings were destroyed and 1,046 other buildings were damaged to varying degrees.。 。 。


2011 Japan 9.0 Earthquake Shifts Earth's Mass and Moves Axis

Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011

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Magnitude 7.3 earthquake strikes near site of Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan


2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

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Japan Earthquake & Tsunami of 2011: Facts and Information